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Macap M7D Grinder
BASIC COFFEE GLOSSARY
Acidity: This is one of the principal categories judged by professional tasters in the evaluation of the coffee bean. Acidity is a positive highly desirable quality that refers to the pleasant high notes sharpness, brightness, snap, life and vibrancy contained of the coffee beverage.
Affogato: This is a term that literally means 'drowned'. It is the description of a shot of separately served espresso that is later poured over a the top of a scoop of vanilla ice cream or gelato.
Aftertaste: It is the aromatic impression that the coffee vapors leave in the mouth after swallowing and is sometimes called finish.
Arabica: Coffea arabica L.- A coffee tree species that contributes about 70% of today’s coffee bean market and is considered dramatically superior in cup quality to other species, including Coffea Canephora (Robusta).
Atm: Abbreviation for the pressure measure of ‘Atmospheres’
Backflushing: A system devised to clean the build up of burnt coffee essence that forms on the group heads of an espresso coffee machine.
Balance: A well-balanced coffee that contains all the basic characteristics but at the right level of intensity.
Bar: This is a measure of pressure usually identified on gauges used in espresso coffee machines. Commercial coffee machines are usually set to 9-10 Bar in order to extract the coffee essence.
Barista: An Italian term for a skilful, experienced and professional espresso coffee maker.
Basic Tastes: The four basic tastes are identified as 1.Sweet (e.g. sucrose), 2. Sour (e.g. tartaric acid), 3.Salt (e.g. sodium chloride), and 4.Bitter (e.g. quinine).
Belly-buttons: one-way-valve moulded into the plastic flexible air tight roasted coffee bean bags, that allows the remaining carbon dioxide (degassing) to escape whilst preventing oxygen from the ambient air from entering the bag.
Blade Grinder: Describes a domestic coffee grinder that uses propeller-like blades to pulverize the roasted coffee beans into ground coffee.
Blend: A mixture of two or more individual varieties of single-origin coffees either before or after roasting.
Blind Filter: A non-porous filter that fits in the group handle (portafilter) and is used for espresso machine group-head cleaning “backflushing”.
Body: This strong but pleasant mouth-feel descriptor does not refer to the density of the liquid but more the tactile impression of the weight, texture and consistency (viscosity, heaviness, thickness, or richness) the coffee has on the back of the tongue.
Boiler Heat Exchanges: These are coils immersed in the boiler where the in-feed water for the coffee extraction is driven by the pump through a coil that is totally immersed in the 3-12 liters of boiling water.
Boiler: This is a pressurized cylindrical reservoir in the espresso machine that contains boiling water and steam.
Bourbon: Coffea arabica L. 'Bourbon'. A botanical variety or cultivar of Coffea Arabica which was first cultivated on the French controlled island of Bourbon.
Brew Temperature: It is generally believed that the temperature of between 190 and 205F (at sea level)-around 93 degrees celsius is needed to extract the most desirable coffee oil from the ground coffee beans.
Brew Time: This is the time it takes to extract a shot of espresso from the ground coffee from the moment of engagement to shut down and is generally between 20 to 30 seconds.
Brewing: Any method of making a coffee beverage using fresh water and ground roasted coffee beans.
Burr Grinder: An adjustable commercial coffee grinder with two identical, tempered steel, toothed discs with sharp ridges or burrs that are positioned facing each other.
Caffe Latte or “Latte”: A ‘premium milk coffee experience’. Traditionally served in glass.
Caffe Mocha: A combination of chocolate syrup and a shot of espresso, topped with steamed milk and a layer of micro-foam. Finished with a sprinkled of chocolate.
Caffeine: Is an odorless, bitter white alkaloid naturally occurring in coffee beans and identified chemically as C8H10N4O2.
Cappuccino: or “Cap”: A ‘traditional morning heart starter’. Cuppuccino is a shot of espresso together with steamed milk and topped with a velvet foam crested during the milk heating/aerating process. Often finished with a sprinkle of fine sweet chocolate powder.
Chicory: (Cichorium intybus) It is a bitter-acid/sweetish tasting additive derived from roasting the root of the blue flowering chicory plant.
Coffee Oil: This is the essence of coffee. It is formed in the bean during the roasting process.
Coffee Sommeliers: A term taken from the wine tasting and refers to professionals of the highest level in coffee tasting whose task it is to identify coffee’s characteristics and determine its quality.
Conical Grinding Blades: These are two blades of different shape. The first is a truncated cone-shaped blade which is fitted to the motor shaft. The second is cylindrical on the outside, but on the inside it is the reversed shape of the flat blade.
Consumer Machine: A lightweight espresso machine designed for home use. Usually characterised by a single group, a vibrating pump and made of semi durable parts.
Crema: Is the creamy caramel, reddish-brown coloured micro-foam layering the top of a recently extracted shot of espresso.
Cultivar: A cultivar is a new variety of an existing plant usually created by combining two others.
Cupping. A term used by coffee professionals to describe their activity of sensory evaluation by sipping brewed coffees in order to grade their qualities. Coffees are graded on the quality of Aroma, Acidity, Body, and Flavour.
Decaffeinated Coffee: Coffee beans that have had its naturally occurring caffeine removed.
Defects: A term used in the green bean grading process to identify unacceptable beans caused by natural and human failures in the picking, processing, drying, sorting, storage, or transportation stages of green coffee bean production.
Degassing: A natural occurring process in which recently roasted coffee releases carbon dioxide gas. This occurs intensively in the first 48 hours and then slowly over the next 7 to 10 days.
Demitasse: A small or three-ounce cup primarily used for serving a traditional shot of espresso. The term is taken from a French word "demi de tasse" meaning, a 'half cup'. The demitasse can be made of glass, stainless steel, ceramic or porcelain.
Doppio: Italian term for double. Double Espresso or twice the amount of coffee and twice the amount of water. Basically it describes two shots of espresso in one demitasse container.
Dosage/Dose: The amount of ground coffee dispensed from the grinder in order to make espresso coffee.
Doser: This is a spring-loaded lever located to the side of the specialized commercial espresso grinder (Burr or Conical) which dispenses the pre-set amount of ground coffee into the portafilter for the making of a shot of espresso coffee.
Dry Processed Coffee: It is a process where the red coffee cherries are laid out to dry on patios in the sun after harvesting.
Drying: The process of bringing the moisture content of the coffee bean down from about 50% to 12%.
E.S.E system: Acronym for (Easy Serve Espresso). It is a pre-packed serving standard that was introduced onto the market by Illycaffe together with a consortium of important espresso machines manufacturers and coffee roasting companies.
Eco-Friendly/Eco Cultivated: The name given to coffee that is cultivated under environmentally-conscious methods which help protect the ecosystem.
ECO-O.K. Certification: The trademark of The Rainforest Alliances coffee certification program. Edward Lloyd: see - Lloyd Edward
Espresso con Panna: A variation of the macchiato by substituting a dollop of whipped cream for the milk froth. Basically a Starbucks invention. Means in Italian "espresso with cream”.
Espresso Lungo: American term where a shot is extracted longer for a bit of extra espresso. Tends to maximizes the caffeine but will mostly produce a more bitter cup.
Espresso method: Is the method of extracting a coffee beverage that involves pushing very hot water at 202F (~93 degrees celsius) under 9 atmospheres of pressure through finely ground coffee.
Espresso Romano: Espresso served with a lemon peel on the side. Whilst not a typical accompaniment in Italy it is commonly served with the espresso beverage in America.
Espresso: Derives from the Latinate root for "Press", or "Under Pressure" and describes a way of making coffee that extracts coffee oils by subjecting finely ground coffee to hot pressurised water. Commonly mispronounced "expresso". The term used to describes the full range of coffee cuisine from short black to caffe latte.
Extraction: The resultant brew obtained by forcing hot water through finely ground coffee. The extraction contains flavors, oils, colloids, lipids and other elements and forms the basis of espresso coffee drinks.
Fair Traded Coffee: A certification given to coffee beans that have been purchased from peasant farmers at a price defined by international agencies as "fair".
Filters: These are the round, flat bottomed metal perforated stainless steel baskets which hold the pre-measured amounts of ground coffee and are clamped into the group handles (portafilters) by a sprung steel ring.
Flat White: “White Coffee” - ‘uncompromising taste’ CRÈME TOPPED – STEAMED MILK – MEDIUM STRENGH. A uniquely Australian term for one shot of espresso together with steamed milk and topped with a fine layer of velvet milk foam sitting just under the rich caramel crème.
Froth/Foam: The dense, creamy thick layer that forms on top of milk after it has been steamed and aerated using a combination of high velocity hot steam and air. Used to create various espresso products i.e. Cappuccino.
God Shot: A popular term that describes a perfect shot of espresso coffee.
Grade: Classification of beans as a measure of quality. Usually done according to size or number of defects.
Green Beans: These are coffee beans that are in a ready-to-be-roasted state.
Group: Sometimes called the brew-head or brew group. It describes the area of the espresso machine where the ground coffee in the group head (portafilter) meets the water heated for the extraction process.
Heat Up Time: The time needed after turning on a commercial espresso machine to heat up the boiler to a point that proper extraction of coffee can occur. Most commercial machines take about 30 minutes or more.
Infusion time: This is the time it takes for heated water, forced under pressure, to pass through the ground coffee in order to extract the soluble flavors and aroma substances from the coffee. Generally this takes between 25-30 seconds.
Latte Art: Creative designs made on the surface of an espresso drink. Latte art may be made by skillfully pouring milk through espresso, or with the aid of toothpicks, chocolate syrup, and sprinkles.
Latte Macchiato: Steamed milk served in a tall glass rather than a cup that is “stained” by a shot of espresso coffee.
Long Black: Often called the “American”. It is the ‘benchmark coffee without milk’.
Macchiato: Meaning “stained” - Described as ‘strong, marked or stained’. A touch of steamed foamed milk added to a double shot of coffee extract.
Mocha: Can also be the name of coffee beverage where espresso coffee is mixed with milk and chocolate.
Natural Coffee: Is the name given to the dry processed green coffee bean. It is also known as Unwashed or cherry coffee (India) – in French (Café non lavé Café naturel), Portuguese (Café de terreiro), Spanish (Café no-lavado, Café natural). See - Dry Processed Coffee.
Nitrogen Flushing: This is the process of forcing the inert Nitrogen gas over the beans in the packing process in order to displace the ambient air containing the taste destroying oxygen gas.
Organic Coffee: For a coffee to carry the organically-grown label it must be certified by an international agency as having been grown without synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or herbicides.
Over Extracted: A term used to describe coffee that has brew or been exposed to ground coffee for too long. Over extracted can make the coffee taste bitter or burnt.
Oxidation: Oxidation is any reaction in which one or more electrons are moved from one chemical to another, producing two different compounds. In coffee, the most common process is that an oxygen molecule donates two electrons to a compound, forming a new (differently perceived) compound and bonding with hydrogen to form water.
Peaberry: A small rounded bean that is formed occasionally when only one seed, rather than the usual flat sided pair, develops at the heart of the coffee cherry.
Plantations: A term to describe monoculture coffee farms ranging from 5 to 5,000 ha. The average size of coffee plantations in Brazil is about 1,000ha. All together, plantations contribute about 30% of worlds green bean supply.
Portafilter: (Group Head) Is the detachable metal cupped bakealite, wood or plastic handle of the espresso machine that holds the metal mesh filter and the ground coffee.
Positive Displacement Vacuum Pump: This unit generates the water pressure (approximately 9 atm or 132 psi) that is required to make coffee in a commercial espresso machines.
Pre Infusion: The act of pre-wetting the bed of ground coffee inside an espresso machine before actually commencing the brew.
Pressure Relief System: (also 3 way solenoid) on most commercial machines, prosumer machines, and many higher end consumer espresso machines, a 3 way valving system exists to immediately remove pressure from the group handle (portafilter) once your espresso shot is completed.
Prosumer: These are the espresso machines positioned somewhere between the domestic and commercial. They often incorporate commercial equipment materials or qualities but are sold, packaged and finished for the home consumer market.
Puck: The puck is the disc shaped cake of coffee that is left behind after brewing.
Pull: An earlier espresso making term used to describe brewing a shot of espresso on the older piston type machines.
Pulsing pumps: These are smaller and cheaper than the rotary pumps and are mostly used on machines designed for home or the office.
Pump: This is a component of the espresso machine used to deliver the pressurised water required for proper espresso brewing (135 PSI). The two types of pumps used in commercial espresso making are (1) the rotary pump, or (2) the vibratory pump.
Ristretto: (Ristretto in Italian means "restricted, shrunk or short”) It is the richest and most concentrated espresso drink where less water but the same amount of coffee is used to make the beverage and creates a less bitter espresso.
Robusta: Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner 'Robusta'. A coffee species, discovered by a Dutch botanist and found to be native to the Belgian Congo (Zaire or Republic of Congo). It is high in caffeine but is generally regarded as an inferior cup quality to Coffea Arabica.
Rotary Pump: The pump type used in most commercial espresso machines and requires the machine to be plumbed in to the mains supply. This pump type is necessary for making a large number of coffees or more than one cup at a time.
Shade Grown: A heavy marketed concept by the SMBC of growing coffee under a forest canopy and thereby giving a beneficial effect to the migratory birds.
Shot: A term used by baristas to describe a brewed espresso.
Showers: A round metal fine mesh attachment fixed to the underside of the group head to disperse the hot water evenly across the ground coffee that is held in the filter.
Single-Origin Coffee: It is also known as Estate Grown. It is a coffee variety that comes from a single country, region, area or crop. It is usually the coffee produced by a single farm, a single mill, or a single group of farms and marketed without blending with any other coffees.
Skinny: (as in Skinny Cappuccino or Latte): An espresso-based drink made with skim or low-fat milk.
Solenoid, 3 - way Valves: These valves serve to relieve the built up pressure in the group and group head (portafilter) assembly immediately after the brewing process
Steam Wand: The small pivotal protruding pipe on espresso machines that provides live steam for the milk-frothing operation.
Tamp/tamping: The act of pressing and compacting a bed of loose, finely ground coffee into the group head (portafilter) in preparation for brewing espresso coffee to prevent channelling by the brewing water.
Tamper: Is the small pestle-like device with a round flat end used for compressing and distributing the ground coffee inside the filter basket in preparation for the coffee extraction process.
Thermostats: A temperature measuring device that is electrically, mechanically, or electronically controlled, and which activates and deactivates a heating element to maintain a preset level.
Typica: Var Typica is the oldest and most well known of all the coffee varieties and still constitutes the bulk of the world's coffee production. Some of the best Latin-American coffees are from the Typica stock.
Vibration/Vibratory Pump: A pump found in most domestic espresso machines and some of the lower end small commercial machines.
Volumetric Portion Control: A small rotating device implanted in the water supply line to the group head that measures the predetermined amount of water portion and triggers the shut off once the full measure is reached.
Wet Processed: This is the name given to the green bean extraction process, where the flesh of the freshly picked red cherry is removed from the coffee beans whilst it is still moist (pulping).
Wine of Arabia: The word "qahwa" in Arabic can mean ‘wine’ or “dark stuff”. Some parts of Europe took this interpretation in the 17th century and called the coffee beverage “Wine of Arabia”
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